English traveler Jonas Hanway, who lived in the courtyard of Nader Shah, describes him: “Nader Shah is taller than 6 feet, well-built, very physically strong. First, in May 1729, he defeated the Abdali Afghans near Herat. He wanted Iran to adopt a form of religion that would be more acceptable to Sunnis and suggested that Iran adopt a form of Shi'ism he called "Ja'fari", in honour of the sixth Shi'a imam Ja'far al-Sadiq. Some of his officers and courtiers feared he was about to execute them and plotted against him, including two of his relatives: Muhammad Quli Khan, the captain … At the same time, the Abdali Afghans rebelled and besieged Mashhad, forcing Nader to suspend his campaign and save his brother, Ebrahim. In 1768, Christian VII of Denmark commissioned Sir William Jones to translate a Persian language biography of Nader Shah written by his Minister Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi into French. There is a story that says, having demanded the daughter of his defeated enemy Muhammad Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, to marry his son Nasrullah, he received the answer that a royal lineage up to the 7th generation was required for marriage with a princess from the House of Timur. Consequences and Takeaways. Nadir had to retaliate with a massacre, which likely claimed some 20K Delhi civilian lives in a span of a few hours. Mohammed Shah and Nadir Shah 1740 Nadir shah had stormed over the Hindu Kush Mountains into India, which, at that time, was under the rule of the Mughul Empire. In Khorasan, Nader at first submitted to the local Afghan governor of Mashhad, Malek Mahmud, but then rebelled and built up his own small army. Emperor Nadir Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and founder of the Afsharid dynasty, invaded the Mughal Empire with a fifty-five thousand strong army, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739. [37] The small group of close intimates, Nader's friends, included Tahmasp Khan Jalayer and Hasan-Ali Beg Bestami. Biography of Nadir Shah Afshar "The Persian Napoleon" (1688-1747) In the history of Persia different dynasties rivalled for supreme power, killing off their opponents. sfn error: no target: CITEREFAxworthy2006 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMuratovAllen2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAllenMuratov (, Elton L. Daniel, "The History of Iran" (Greenwood Press 2000) p. 94, Raghunath Rai. After Nadir Shah's death, the Kohinoor came into the acquisition of one of his generals, Ahmad Shah Durrani. [27], Tahmasp and the Qajar leader Fath Ali Khan (the ancestor of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar) contacted Nader and asked him to join their cause and drive the Ghilzai Afghans out of Khorasan. After the war, Nadir Khan was made Minister of War and from early 1924 to 1926 he was Afghan Ambassador to France. In 1747, Nader set off for Khorasan, where he intended to punish Kurdish rebels. Read online ebooks by best author available for any device and kindle. By 13 October 1929, Forces loyal to Nadir captured Kabul and subsequently sacked the city,[5] and he arrived in the city on the 15th. [18] His reforms may have strengthened the country, but they did little to improve Iran's suffering economy. On 8 November 1933, Nadir Khan was visiting a high school and was shot dead by Abdul Khaliq during a graduation ceremony. This led to the capture of Ghazni, Kabul, Peshawar, Sindh and Lahore. [74] The Kashmirian historian Lateef described him as follows: “Nader Shah, the horror of Asia, the pride and savior of his country, the restorer of her freedom and conqueror of India, who, having a simple origin, rose to such greatness that monarchs rarely have from birth”. Nader became increasingly cruel as a result of his illness and his desire to extort more and more tax money to pay for his military campaigns. Death Records for Nadir A Shah Profile; Phone; Address; Email; Birthday; We found 6 people that match in the United States. Genealogy for Nadir Qoli Mirza Nadir Shah---Shahenshah e Iran (Afshar) (1688 - 1747) family tree on Geni, with over 200 million profiles of ancestors and living relatives. It was around 9 th century that Imam Reza was martyred by poison. He had the chief mullah of Iran strangled after he was heard expressing support for the Safavids. When Sultan Husayn attempted to quell a rebellion by the Ghilzai Afghans in Kandahar, the governor he sent (Gurgin Khan) was killed. This history has been living in the heart of any Azerbaijani and throws light on its future. He began to suspect his son was behind the attempt and confined him to Tehran. Nadir Shah slaughtered everyone in the city for 6 hours in a day and killed lakhs of people in the city. At the age of 61, after a violent reign of 11 years and three months, Nadir Shah died on June 19, 1747. [18], Nader's focus on common Turkmen descent was designed to establish a broad political framework that could tie him, more closely than his Safavid predecessors, to both Ottomans and Mughals. Shah was proclaimed king on November 8, 1933, within a few hours of his father's assassination, and adopted the title Mutawakkil Ala'llah, Pairaw-i … Afterwards he became increasingly despotic as his health declined markedly. He improved road construction, especially the Great North Road through the Hindu Kush, methods of communication, and helped establish Afghanistan's first university in 1931; however, this university (Kabul University) did not admit any students until 1932. Born in 1883, Died 1933 Mohammad Nadir chose military as his carrier. Although Nadir Khan placated religious factions with a constitutional emphasis on orthodox denominational principles, he also took steps to modernize Afghanistan in material ways, although far less obtrusively than Amanullah. When … Nadir Shah at the sack of Delhi - Battle scene with Nader Shah on horseback, possibly by Muhammad Ali ibn Abd al-Bayg ign Ali Quli Jabbadar, mid-18th century, Museum of … Among a trove of other fabulous jewels, Nader also looted the Koh-i-Noor (meaning "Mountain of Light" in Persian) and Darya-ye Noor (meaning "Sea of Light") diamonds. This section: Axworthy, pp. Two days after his arrival in Delhi, rumours were spread in the city that Nadir Shah had met with an untimely death or had been seized or imprisoned by On November 8, 1933, Mohammad Nadir Shah, King of Afghanistan was shot and killed by an assassin while taking part in a high school awards ceremony at the royal palace in Kabul, Afghanistan. [52] The booty they had collected was loaded on 700 elephants, 4,000 camels, and 12,000 horses. He was born in the year 1722 (age 50-51 years at the time of death) in Herat (then Hotak Empire, present-day Afghanistan) or Multan (then Mughal Empire, present-day Pakistan). Nader was a long-waited son in his family. When rebellions broke out in 1743 upon the death of Muhammad Hakim, the shah dispatched the ataliq’s son Muhammad Rahim Bi, who had accompanied him to Iran, to quell them. In 1736, Nadir Shahascended the Persian throne. In Isfahan, Nader got Tahmasp drunk then showed him to the courtiers asking if a man in such a state was fit to rule. [25] After the Shah failed to escape or to rally a relief force elsewhere, the city was starved into submission and Sultan Husayn abdicated, handing power to Mahmud. India was used just as loot and he Nader was not impressed with his son's waywardness and reprimanded him, but he took him on his expedition to conquer territory in Transoxiana. [9] An ethnic Hazara, Abdul Khaliq was immediately apprehended and tortured and then executed by quartering along with most of his relatives including his father and uncle. One of his descendents, Shah Shuja Durrani gave the diamond to Ranjit Singh of Punjab. Nader belonged to the Turkoman[15] Afshar tribe, a semi-nomadic tribe settled in Khorasan in northeastern Iran,[16] which had supplied military power to the Safavid dynasty since the time of Shah Ismail I. His paternal grandfather was Yahya Khan and his great grandfather was Sultan Mohammad Khan Telayee, the brother of Dost Muhammad Khan. These included the murder of the former shah Tahmasp and his family, including the nine-year-old Abbas III. Reza had behaved highhandedly and somewhat cruelly but he had kept the peace in Iran. Its Mohammad hakim bi was ruler of the khanate of bukhara at that time, "A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East", "History of Iran: Afsharid Dynasty (Nader Shah)", "SIR WILLIAM JONES (174... - Online Information article about SIR WILLIAM JONES (174...", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nader_Shah&oldid=996433554, 17th-century people of the Safavid Empire, 18th-century people of the Safavid Empire, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox military person with embed, Articles containing Persian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 16:07. Ashraf fled and Nader finally entered Isfahan, handing it over to Tahmasp in December. [66] It was published in 1770 as Histoire de Nadir Chah. [18] Nader discontinued the policy of paying soldiers based on land tenure. Nader Shah was pretty hardcore. This is a conservative estimate, with other estimates as high as 4 lacs. Member of the French Academy of Sciences, Pierre Bayen wrote about Nader Shah the following: “He was the horror of the Ottoman Empire, the conqueror of India, the ruler of Persia and all of Asia. This included mainly, but was not limited to, the losses of Dagestan (including its principal city of Derbent), Baku, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad. Muhammad Yusuf Khan, Governor of Herat, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 17:58. This is when Nadir Shah meets the young Durrani and takes a liking to him. He called Ahmed Khan immediately to Delhi and as soon as Ahmed Kh When they came to him, Nadir Shah made a wound on the tip of Ahmed Khan’s ear with his dagger. Nādir Shāh, also spelled Nāder Shāh, original name Nadr Qolī Beg, also called Ṭahmāsp Qolī Khan, (born Oct. 22, 1688, Kobhān, Ṣafavid Iran—died June 1747, Fatḥābād), Iranian ruler and conqueror who created an Iranian empire that stretched from the Indus River to … After growing up in India, Nadir Khan first went to Afghanistan when his grandfather Mohammad Yahya was authorized to return from exile by the British and Abdur Rahman Khan. Even his chronicler was forced to limit himself by saying that diamond was valued not by the rock where it had been found, but by its splendor. The citizens' rejoicing was cut short when Nader plundered them to pay his army. His numerous campaigns created a great empire that, at its greatest extent, briefly encompassed what is now part of or includes Iran, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, the North Caucasus, Iraq, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Oman and the Persian Gulf, but his military spending had a ruinous effect on the Iranian economy. [21], Nader Shah was born in the fortress of Dastgerd[6] into the Qereqlu clan of the Afshars, a semi-nomadic Turkic Qizilbash pastoralist tribe settled in the northern valleys of Khorasan, a province in the northeast of the Iranian Empire. Nader and his mother were among those who were carried off into slavery. For the 18th-century Shah of Persia, see, King of the God granted Kingdom of Afghanistan and its dependencies, Dupree, Louis: "Afghanistan", page 474. Encyclopedia of Soviet law By Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge, Gerard Pieter van den Berg, William B. Simons, Page 457, L. Lockhart, «Nadir Shah : A Critical Study Based Mainly Upon Contemporary Sources», W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», p. 48, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 3-4, W. Dalrymple, A. Anand, «Koh-i-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond», E. Tucker, «Nadir Shah’s Quest for Legitimacy in Post-Safavid Iran», p. 6, R. B. Kaul, «Ballad on Nadir Shah's Invasion in India», p. 16, Rudi Matthee, «Nādir Shāh in Iranian Historiography: Warlord or National Hero?», Restoration of Tahmasp II to the Safavid throne, Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism, The Sword of Persia: Nader Shah, from Tribal Warrior to Conquering Tyrant, Modern Conflict in the Greater Middle East: A Country-by-Country Guide, "An Outline of the History of Persia During the Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)", Svat Soucek, a history of inner asia page 195: in 1740 Nader Shah, the new ruler of Iran, crossed the Amu Darya and, accepting the submission of Muhammad Hakim Bi which was then formalized by the acquiescence of Abulfayz Khan himself, proceeded to attack Khiva. Its prestige was irrecoverably lost, and the various provinces ceased to yield any but a nominal obedience to the throne of Delhi. He may have perceived a need to unite disparate components of the ummah against the expanding power of Europe at that time, however his view of Muslim unity was different from later concepts of it. He denounced the treaty, seeking popular support for a war against the Ottomans. Nadir A Shah … Mohammed Nadir Shah (Pashto: محمد نادر شاه – born Mohammed Nadir; 9 April 1883 – 8 November, 1933) was King of Afghanistan from 15 October 1929 until his assassination in 1933. Download Nadir Shah Full Books [PDF] [EPUB] [Tuebl] [textbook]. The other major prose chronicle of Nadir's reign, the JGN, provides a useful con-trast to the AAN. [18][40], In 1741, eight Muslim mullahs and three European and five Armenian priests translated the Koran and the Gospels[clarification needed]. 1883-1933 (Birth and death years) Biography Muhammad Nadir Shah (aka Khan) King of Afghanistan 1929-33. [citation needed]. [10][11] According to Hafizullah Emadi, "The government arrested Abdul Khaliq, his family, and friends, and used this opportunity to arrest other potential rivals and execute them on charges of plotting the assassination of King Nadir. Mohammed Shah and Nadir Shah 1740. Click on the View Details button for more information. The Mughal Empire was already weakened and reeling under the impact of bitter wars of succession of past three decades, after the death of Aurangzeb. Nader pursued and defeated Ashraf, who was murdered by his own followers. Nader scored a great victory over a superior Ottoman force at Baghavard and by the summer of 1735, Iranian Armenia and Georgia were his again. “After the death of Nader Shah, the Sovereignty Struggles in Iran and the Iran Policy of Ottoman State” Abdurrahman ATE Ş∗ ÖZET Bu çalı şmada Af şar hanedanının kurucusu Nadir … When Nader discovered that Fath Ali Khan was in treacherous correspondence with Malek Mahmud and revealed this to the shah, Tahmasp executed him and made Nader the chief of his army instead. Invasion Nadir Shah became the ruler of Iran in 1736, his troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year. Nader asked for the Afghan rebels to be handed over, but the Mughal emperor refused. Among his reforms was the introduction of what came to be known as the kolah-e Naderi. In late 1726, Nader recaptured Mashhad. Nader and his brothers played an important role in destabilizing Amani government and they started to support Habibullah Kalakani. Nader Shah became the Persian ruler in 1730. In 1747, Nadir shah was assassinated by the captain of unfortunate Motherland and the historical facts. [24], Nader grew up during the final years of the Safavid dynasty which had ruled Iran since 1502. Sultan Husayn's son had declared himself Shah Tahmasp II, but found little support and fled to the Qajar tribe, who offered to back him. People Projects Discussions Surnames Nāder Shāh Afshār or Nadir Shah (Persian: نادر شاه افشار ; also known as Nāder Qoli Beg - نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khān - تهماسپ قلی خان) (November, 1688 [1] or August 6, 1698 [5] – June 19, 1747) ruled as Shah of Iran (1736–47) and was the founder of the Afsharid dynasty. Nadir Shah took with him the Peacock throne built by Shah Jahan. His father was Mohammad Yusuf Khan and his mother was Sharaf Sultana Hukumat Begum. The newly gained Russian and Turkish possessions were confirmed and further divided amongst themselves in the Treaty of Constantinople (1724). This once powerful Muslim state to the east was falling apart as the nobles became increasingly disobedient and local opponents such as the Sikhs and Hindu Marathas of the Maratha Empire were expanding upon its territory. Nader had left his son Reza Qoli Mirza to rule Iran in his absence. Nader was able to kill two of the assassins before he died.[61]. Get full address, contact info, background report and more! Nader subsequently took on the title Tahmasp Qoli (Servant of Tahmasp). He killed 20,000 to 30,000 citizens (men, women, and children) of Delhi in about 6 hours. In his last years, Nader became increasingly paranoid, ordering the assassination of large numbers of suspected enemies. Nadir Shah: Birthdate: estimated before 1923: Death: Immediate Family: Son of Hazrat Pir Zamin Shah Father of Mir Alam Shah Baba and Mardan Shah Baba Brother of Imam Shah; Mubarak Shah and Sahab Shah. Nader Shah Afshar (Persian: نادر شاه افشار‎; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688[5] – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in Iranian history, ruling as Shah of Iran (Persia) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion. Of more consequence and humiliating was the plunder of Delhi by Nadir Shah. This was a hat with four peaks which symbolised the first four caliphs. His troops captured Esfahan from the Safavid dynasty and founded the Afsharid dynasty in that year. His successful campaign and replenishment of funds meant that he could continue his wars against Iran's archrival and neighbour, the Ottoman Empire,[54] as well as the campaigns in the North Caucasus. In 1743, Nader started another war against the Ottoman Empire. He ended up losing all of Nader's recent gains to the Ottomans, and signed a treaty ceding Georgia and Armenia in exchange for Tabriz. Without Nader, "eventual British [in India] would have come later and in a different form, perhaps never at all - with important global effects".[68]. After what that man described miracles and pleasures of the heaven, the shah asked: “Are there such things as war and victory over the enemy in paradise?” When the man answered negatively, Nader replied: “How can there be any pleasure then?”.[70]. Managed by: Dr. Arshad Khan: Last Updated: October 30, 2014 [1] He captured Kalakani and executed him by firing squad on the west wall of the Arg on 1 November 1929, along with Kalakani's brother, and 9 other members of Kalakani's inner circle.[6]. Today’s installment concludes Nadir Shah Captures Delhi, our selection from History of Persia by Sir John Malcolm published in 1815. Nader also secured one of the Mughal emperor's daughters, Jahan Afruz Banu Begum, as a bride for his youngest son. This thing caused death of many Persian soldiers and when Nadir shah saw bodies of Persian soldiers he ordered full massacre of Delhi, which was then known as notorious Qatal-e-am. Oman and the Uzbek khanates of Bukhara and Khiva regained independence, while the Ottoman Empire regained the lost territories in Western Armenia and Mesopotamia. [73], One Punjabi contemporary poet described the rule of Nader as a time “when all of India trembled with horror”. [4], Shortly after a rebellion by some Pashtun tribesmen and Tajik forces of Habibullah Kalakani against the monarchy, Nadir Khan was exiled due to disagreements with King Amanullah. Meanwhile, Iran's imperial neighboring rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize and divide territory for themselves. It was during his rule the notorious raids of Delhi by Nadir shah of Persia and the Afghan Ahmad Shah Abdali took place. Its ruler Muhammad Shah was powerless to reverse this disintegration. Reza Qoli angrily protested his innocence, but Nader had him blinded as punishment, and ordered his eyes to be brought to him on a platter. The commission was supervised by Mīrzā Moḥammad Mahdī Khan Monšī, the court historiographer and author of the Tarikh-e-Jahangoshay-e-Naderi (History of Nader Shah's Wars). At its peak, under such figures as Abbas the Great, Safavid Iran had been a powerful empire, but by the early 18th century the state was in serious decline and the reigning shah, Sultan Husayn, was a weak ruler. In 1741, while Nader was passing through the forest of Mazanderan on his way to fight the Daghestanis, an assassin took a shot at him but Nader was only lightly wounded. 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