To some extent, the religious and Deccan policies of Aurangazeb contributed to its decline. Jahangir’s son Shah Jahan also persecuted the Sikhs, and tried to keep out the Jesuits. Let Jesus follow his own religion and Moses his own”. Answer: It was the policy of the Mughal rulers to campaign constantly against rulers who were not ready to accept their authority. The second was the revolt of Khusro. We see that during the Affair of Placard where the entire city of Paris was filled up with anti-Catholic posters which lead to the expulsion of many Protestant thinkers from the city. 2. (iv) Jahangir closed Christian churches when he was at war with the Portuguese. House [1962] (OCoLC)607116076: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Sri Ram Sharma. Christians were persecuted after the capture of Hughly. Sharma has explained the impact of his policy in these words “Among the rulers of India he occupies a very high place…among other things—his having attempted to bring Hindus and Muslims together with some success…It is worth remembering that at a time when Europe was plunged into strife of warring sects, when Roman Catholics were burning Protestants at the stake, and Protestants were executing Roman Catholics, Akbar guaranteed peace not only to ‘warring sects’ but to different religions. Matrimonial alliances with Hindu families. Wait — When in Rome, Do As the Egyptians? The reason was that the early Mughals did not get ample time to display their worth on this issue as stated by M. L. Roy Choudhury during proceedings of the Indian History Congress in 1946, “Babur found in India temples, religious fairs, Jeziah, and the pilgrim-tax. Now what we see here is the emperor desperately trying to consolidate his powers. (v) The most important action of his fanaticism was that he executed the fifth Sikh Guru Arjun Dev. Examples like these inform us about the secular nature of the State. were destroyed during his period. Not a religious bigot, concentrated mostly on war on to fronts Pathans and rajputs . The failure of Akbar’s diplomatic offensive postulated a more active intervention in the Deccan. Babur died in 1530 CE. With absolute power in his hands, the Mughal ruler had to depend on the support of a linguistically, religiously, and ethnically diverse nobility for the success of their policies. However, when the Mughal became powerful, many other rulers joined them willingly. This all resulted in decline of the Mughals. In the modern age, he was the first and almost the greatest experimenter in the field of religious toleration if the scope of his toleration, the races to which it was applied, and the contemporary conditions be taken into account.”. Question 2. 212: India in the First Half of the Seventeenth Century . Several taxes including ‘Jazia’ were imposed on the Hindus. He tried to harmonize the relations. Benares, the city of temples, added three scores and ten temples during Jahangir’s reign. The Deccan Policy of the Mughals was the conflict and diplomacy that take place between the Mughals and various states. TOS4. They followed the policy of tolerance. The zawabit (a prohibiting cow slaughter framed by Zainul Abidin of Kashmir during the 15th century and enforced all over the Mughal empire not only during the reign of Akbar but in those of Jahangir and Shah Jahan as well can be cited as an interesting example of this type of zawabit. Aurangzeb alienated the sympathy and support of the Hindus by committing all sorts of atrocities on them. “Shah Jahan inherited from his father and grandfather a high sense of justice and personally meted out justice irrespective of caste and creed. Though staunch Sunnis personally, Babur and Humayun were tolerant. Akbar's policy was positively motivated towards achieving the cultural unity of India. The ideas of secularism, diversity, pluralism and tolerance, much preached by the West in our contemporary world, are the parameters they set for weighing different ages or rulers. Content Guidelines 2. Medieval Europe was fragmented on the lines of religion. Because of his harsh religious rules, most of the population revolted against him. During his long reign of 49 years, Aurangzeb had done much to extend the frontiers of the empire he had inherited from his father, Shah Jahan, but the extensive military campaigns he conducted, particularly in the Deccan, created a severe financial drain on his resources. Bairam Khan is responsible for molding his conduct and shaping his early policy. EMBED. AKBAR’s DECCAN POLICY Mughal advance to the Deccan. User-contributed reviews . Consequences of the religious policy of Aurangzeb: In the words of Pringle Kennedy, “What Akbar had gained…he (Aurangzeb) lost.” Dr. Surjit ManSingh in Historical Dictionary of India’ (1998) has observed, “Some modern historians ascribe to Aurangzeb the intention of ruling India as an Islamic country and depict the Maratha rebellion by Shivaji as an early stage of Hindu nationalism. Description that the Mughal rule was oriental despotism that it had a divine origin which invested the Mughal emperors with Divine Rights, have only raised the dust of controversy about the religious policy of the Mughal emperors. He ordered that those Hindus who embraced Islam would get their share from the property of their father immediately. About the Book The historians have variously described the nature of the Mughal State in India. Of course, in this endeavor he was not successful. These five states includes the Nizam Shahi of Ahmadnagar, the Imad Shahi of Berar, the Adil … Iqtidar Alam Khan informs us that, “Barani leaves us in no doubt that in case of a conflict the state laws (i.e. India - India - The composition of the Mughal nobility: Within the first three decades of Akbar’s reign, the imperial elite had grown enormously. Equal treatment with subjects of all faiths. (iii) Jahangir threw away the idol of god Varaha at Ajmer into a pond. Babur and Humayun had no time to pursue a … Akbar followed the policy of religious toleration on account of the following major considerations: In the words of Dr. H.N. Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India's trade with Central Asia. Now, these developments show us the practical nature of Akbar and his concern for the non-Muslim population. It also seems that some of the essential elements of the theories of state as enunciated by them were, apparently, borrowed from the political theorists of Ancient India in preference to what has been postulated by the early Islamic authorities”. These moves were rather taken to appease the Muslim nobility and to consolidate the position of Jahangir. Akbar’s Religious Policy: Akbar is known for his liberal ideas and liberal religious policy. On the other side, he opened higher services for Non-Muslims. Then, Humayun succeeds his father Babur (1530-1556 CE) who follows the footsteps of his father in relation to adopting a policy of religious toleration. This pertains to all the authors of the piece, their spouses or partners. The Ottoman sultans who had assumed the title of Padshah-i-Islam and claimed to be the successors of the Caliph of Baghdad. We see Catholics persecuting Protestants, prosecution of minorities (like King Henry the fourth’s order of expelling the Jewish population) and a state focused on the idea that the religion of the Emperor must be the religion of the populous. Personality and Character of Aurangazeb Find more information about: ISBN: 0210339357 9780210339350: OCLC Number: 992343: Description: 206 pages 23 cm: Reviews. 166: The Deccan and the Mughals Upto 1657 . Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. 3. Question 2. 525: Glossary . He adopted a policy of mutual understanding and reconciliation among followers of different faiths and equality of all religions. A Closer look: Akbar s Policies. Aryan tribes invaded India some time around 1500 B.C.E. Even if he was not hands on in the running of his empire, it was still founded on his policy of religious toleration. Jai Singh was given full control of Man Singh’s temple at Brindaban in 1619; Hindu temples of Gujarat were restored to the Hindus after 1646. His Deccan campaign also proved failure and drained wealth of the kingdom too. Smith explained the aim of his religious policy in his own words thus: “For an empire ruled by one head, it was a bad thing to have the members divided among themselves, at variance one with the other…We ought, therefore, to bring them all into one, but in such fashion that they should be one and with the great advantage of not losing what is good in any one religion, while gaining whatever is better in another. We are also informed that, “He is credited by the orthodox Muslims with restoring the festivals and fairs of the Muslims but he refers in his autobiography to his celebration of Muharram Ramadan, Shab-i-Barat, as well as that of Rakhi, Shivaratri, Dussehra, and Diwali festivals in which he himself took part. Awangzeb, did not follow the Mughals’ policy and insulted Shivaji when he came to accept Mughal authority. 5. We see this policy continuing owing to its success in Akbar’s reign. Aurangzeb made many grants both cashes and lands to priests and scholars of Banaras. 2. Abkar made the religious policy that people of all religions should be able to work and live together. … Edition Notes Bibliography: p. [203]-208 p. "First published 1940." He tried to harmonize the relations. The weakness of the empire was exposed when Nadir Shah imprisoned the Mughal Emperor and looted Delhi in 1739. The author informs us about a letter by Aurangzeb to one of his officials regarding the application of Sharia. This policy was absent in Europe, where decrees were issued to seize lands belonging to the Protestant population in Prague by the Holy Roman Emperor. Addeddate 2017-01-24 01:19:58 Identifier in.ernet.dli.2015.278323 Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t7hq9c19c Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 Ppi 600 Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.1.0. plus-circle Add Review. We infer that all, irrespective of their religions, were protected. He is credited by the orthodox Muslims with restoring the festivals and fairs of the Muslims.”. The most easy lot, thus, is the one with the most influencing power. image source: file2.answcdn.com/answ-cld/image/upload/w_760,c_fill,g_faces:center,q_60/v1400852409/r30e7mqgbjwpfkjmuy7w.jpg. 6. Description that the Mughal rule was oriental despotism that it had a divine origin which invested the Mughal emperors with Divine Rights, have only raised the dust of controversy about the religious policy of the Mughal emperors. The Mughals also used their diplomatic foreign policy … During his reign, two sons of the 10th Sikh Guru Gobind Singh were buried alive. He justified his declaration of faith by allowing the conversion of a Hindu temple at Sambai into a mosque as well as the destruction of a temple at Chanderi through Shaikh Zain, his Sadr and of another temple at Ayodhya through Mir Baqi.”. Thus total number of Hidus Mansabdar fell.18 While some historians accepted that the number of Hindus, holding high position in the Mughal service under Aurangzeb was greater than any of his predecessor. But after the reign of Akbar, we see that the successions were never swift. This unique quality of theirs enabled them to extend their influence over many kings and chieftains. No_Favorite. This might have been adopted due to two reasons. In fact, it was largely designed to serve the political needs for the empire. The war captives were converted to Islam. Founding a new religion based on the common points of all religions. Religious policy of the Mughal emperors. The matter has been made so complex, that it is not possible to sift facts. The dominant note of this awakening was love and liberalism—love that united man to God and therefore to his brother man and liberalism, born of this love that levelled down the barrier of caste and creed, and took its stand on the bed­rock of human existence and essence of all religions—Universal Brotherhood. Aurangzeb’s religious policy weakened the foundation of the Mughal empire, therefore bringing it to an end. ), Dr. RMLNLU, Lucknow. To the Muslim as to the Hindu, it heralded the dawn of a new era, to the Muslim with the birth of the promised Mahdi, to the Hindu with the realization of the all-absorbing love of God.” The Bhakti cult and the Sufis preached religious toleration. The emperors, however, called themselves agents of Islam; this left a very wide margin of freedom to them, both in theory and in practice. comment. His acts also were the reason that many Rajput principalities became a part of the Mughal Empire. Impact of Religious Policy of Aurangzeb on Mughal Empire. It is said that by the command of the emperor Babur, his governor Baqi Tashqandi built a mosque at Ayodhya by destroying an ancient temple which also marked the birth place of Rama whom the Hindus consider him as an incar­nation of God. The historian tried to prove that the religious policy of Auaranzeb caused the opposition of Hindus which caused the decline of Mughal Empire. In this year the Governor of Orissa was ordered to destroy all temples old and new, including those built during the previous decade. Episode 14 leaves the West and heads to 16th and 17th Century India and the Mughal empire. The main benefits enjoyed by a majority religion in a European nation in the medieval ages were security; freedom to profess their religion; employment in aristocratic institutions and benefits given by the Church. Sharma, “He embarked on a campaign of complete destruction of the new temples of the Hindus.”. The first was his revolt in the later days of Akbar’s reign which had decreased his affinity with the Mughal court. 2. To compare the Mughal policy with their contemporary European counterparts we must shed some light on the conditions of Medieval Europe. Deccan Policy of the Mughals – Political Condition. Mughals and Ottomans and Trade (commerce etc. 3. One of the focuses of this paper would be to weigh the Mughal Empire on the basis of the conditions present at that time around the world. Reviews There are no reviews yet. The Mughals had a highly centralized form of government. From the discussion above given, it is clear that the Mughals succeeded in maintaining a controlled frontier in the north-west, based on the Hindukush, on the one side, and the Kabul-Ghazni line, on the other. One of Shah Ismail's most important decisions was to declare that the state religion would be the form of Islam called Shi'ism, that at the time was completely foreign to Iranian culture. It states. The emperor in the late 1600s reversed that policy and destroyed many Hindu temples. 2. The religious policy of the Mughal emperors,. There were several Rajputs who married their daughters into Mughal families in order to gain a high position. Akbar appointed a separate officer called Mir Haj to look after the amenities of the Haj Pilgrims. If one was to compare the two empires side by side, the Mughal Empire would have to be more successful than the Ottoman Empire. Out of the 7 states, 5 were offshoots of the Bamani Kingdom which came to an end in 1538 C.E. The Sangh's propaganda of "Love Jihad" has seen its recent policy manifestation in the ordinance cleared by the Uttar Pradesh Man Singh constructed at a cost of 5 lakhs of rupees a very beautiful temple at Brindaban, which has been very highly extolled by Abdul Latif in his Travels. Bairam Khan, who subsequently became Akbar’s guardian and protector, was a Shia Muslim. The Mughal Empire grew out of descendants of the Mongol Empire who were living in ... Aurangzeb was a very observant and religious Muslim who ended the policy of religious … Unlike Aurangzeb, among all Mughal emperors Akbar implemented the most liberal religious policy. Akbar was born and brought up in comparatively liberal surrounding. The minister-in-charge of religious and charitable patronage was known as (a) zamindar (b) bakhshi (c) sadr (d) bigot Answer: sadr. Babur was a Sunni Muslim (Manas: History and Politics, “Babar”), but he was very lax in Muslim religious observance and practice (Farooqui, 285) and practiced open-minded, tolerant Islam (BBC, “Mughal Empire (1500s, 1600s)). Religious Policy of the Mughals. “What concern have we with the religion of anybody? The courtly culture of the Mughals flourished under his rule; like his great grand-father, Babar, he had an interest in gardens, and Mughal painting probably reached its zenith in Jahangir’s time. In practice, many of the zawabit framed by Muslim rulers in India tended to dilute the impact of Islamic Shariat on the state. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. His religious policy was responsible for turning the Rajputs, the Marathas and Sikhs into the enemies of Mughal empire. Religious policy of the Mughul emperors, from Babur to Aurangzeb, has provided an ideal for the ruling class of India, viz., the ruling class of India should pursue a policy of religious toleration and equality. He imposed Jajiya on all the Hindus in the country. “ for you there is your religion, and for me mine (Inkum dinkunm wa idin), if the laws were followed, it would have been necessary to annihilate all the Rajputs”. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! His policy towards the Sikhs the Marathas the Jats and the Rajputs lossed their support. 131: Akbais Religious Views . Th Religious Policy of Akbar was liberal. Some of the historians think that all these acts were done on political considerations and not on religious considerations. Haj Pilgrims received subsidies from the Government. (1) Religious Policy of Aurangzeb: The most important cause of the downfall of the Mughal Empire was the religious policy of Aurangzeb. ... Akbar commissioned the illustrations of several literary and religious texts. Moreover, I have provided myself with constraints as it is demanded by the scope of my syllabus. He established a separate department for the destruction of temples. The Mughals brought Turko-Iranian culture into India and the Indian traditions were blended Turko-Iranian culture. In particular, the rule of Akbar the Great. That is why we see, “Jahangir demolished temples at Mewar, Ajmer and Kangra, and churches were closed at Agra. Abolition of ‘Jazia’ and other taxes imposed on the Hindus. Christians were allowed to enjoy celebrations of the Michaelmas, Christmas, and Easter festivals and sometimes payments were made for these celebrations.”. In the context of Banaras we see the second view. (a) tolerant religious policy (b) good administration (c) economic reforms and works (d) all of these Answer: all of these. But beginning in 1658, Shah Jahan’s son Aurangzeb really began to persecute anyone who wasn’t a Muslim, just the way people did further west. Question 5. I have used religion as an element to measure the same because religion was a crucial factor in determining the lives of people for centuries. Not a religious bigot, concentrated mostly on war on to fronts Pathans and rajputs . dc.title: The Religious Policy Of The Mughal Emperors dc.type: ptiff dc.type: pdf. (a) He discriminated against the Hindu traders when he abolished some duties for all Muslim traders. To weigh the standard of these religious policies, as stated earlier, I would balance them with the events of Medieval Europe. Temples in Banaras, Allahabad, Gujarat and Kashmir were broken during his reign. In the reign of Jahangir, we find a little affinity for orthodoxy practices. Aurangzeb completely reversed the religious policy of Akbar. Restrictions were imposed on the celebration of Hindu festivals and fairs. zawabit) overrode the shariat’’. For example, “Raja Kalyan, son of Todar Mal, was appointed governor of Orissa, Raja Vikramjit, governor of Gujarat; and Raja Man Singh continued to serve as governor of Bengal despite his support for Khusrau and his opposition to Jahingir’s accession.”. Iqtidar Alam Khan paper in the journal ‘Social Scientist’ informs us that, “the Delhi Sultanate as well as the Mughal empire were far from being Islamic theocracies and actually carried within their state organisation many overtly secular features is fully borne out by the observations of Ziyauddin Barani and Abul Fazl on the problems of sovereignty. The Mughals also used their diplomatic foreign policy to promote India's commercial interests. The Mughal foreign policy refers to the steps taken by successive Mughal rulers to secure the western frontiers of India. 497: Review and Conclusions . 1. Various kinds of temptations were offered to Hindus to embrace Islam. An environment of good will was developed. The state of religious policy during Aurangzeb can be determined by the words of M. L. Roy Choudhury, “The year 1669 A.D. is a memorable year in the history of iconoclasm in India. He had declared his love for Islam on the eve of the battle of Khanwaha by renouncing wine and declaring Jehad. Printed in India. 4. The grand currents of the reformation compare favourably with the staging up of a new life in India. He writes, “The Muslim pleaded that he could not be accused of killing an animal which is sanctioned by Islam”, ‘‘The Emperor who conquered these lands from heathens had given his word that he and his successors would let them live under their own laws and customs; he therefore allowed no breach of them.”. Tags. He spent 4 hours every day dispensing justice,” as Abdul Hamid Lahori says. This indicates a major change in the policy of tolerance but Aurangzeb was not the initiator of this policy. But at the same time, many resisted the Mughals. There were certain basic principles of the religious policy of Akbar. Jain temples were built at Satrunjaya and Ujjain. He came to the throne in 1556, barely even into his teens, and lived until 1605. But his reign did not mark any perceptible departure from the traditional line either for better or for worse, so far as religion was concerned. There were two reasons for the same. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. Besides, political, economic, and religious were other causes for Deccan Policy. We see in the reign of Akbar that he had formally abolished the pilgrim-tax while he was scarcely twenty during his stay at Mathura. Therefore, Jahangir wanted to defeat the Rajput of Mewar. They were accompanied with revolts and fragmentation of the nobility. The Mughal rulers were successful in reigning over a long period of time over the vast area of the subcontinent because of their administrative and religious policy, which pro He established a separate department for securing conversion to Islam. The great Mughals have immortal position for their contribu- These policies indicate that they respected and also took responsibility for all their subjects. Akbar got the credit of being a national king. The Mughal Empire was a strong supporter when it … Akbar, a great Mughal Emperor was known for his (a) tolerant religious policy (b) good administration (c) economic reforms and works (d) all of these Answer: all of these. Strength and prosperity of an empire depends upon unity of its people: Dr. V.A. New York, Asia Pub. You can learn more about him here: Humayun was essentially a mystic and there is no instance of destruction of temple or interference with the worship of the Dhimmis under his rule. 3. The main policy shift or even presence of a religious policy starts with the reign of Akbar, flows into the reign of Jahangir and Shah Jahan and severely modifies up in the reign of Aurangzeb. 7. Akbar’s most notable tutor, Abdul Latif, taught him the principle of universal peace which […] L Like in the Mughal empire, there were religious tensions between people that … Disclaimer Copyright, History Discussion - Discuss Anything About History, North-Western Policy of the Mughal Emperors, Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors | Indian History, The Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and its Effects, Akbar’s Religious Views and His Policy towards Hindus, Foreign Policy of the Mughals and their Relations with Central Asia, Forts in India: 5 Magnificent Ancient Forts in India, Mosques in India: 15 Ancient Mosques in India. On this site, please read the following pages: 1 causes the... Pratab, the ideas of Akbar sympathy and support of the Mughal State in India to Bahadur. Closed at Agra, Thatta Lahore and Cambay led to the period that I have.... For Lists Search for Lists Search for Lists Search for a Library their share from the centre the aims... 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