The structure is an impressive example of Mughal architecture. The construction was completed in 1656. The tomb stands on a raised vast platform in the centre of a square garden. It is located in Agra. Red Sandstone was amply used in Mughal monuments. D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, … It includes the building of palaces and forts. Jama Masjid – Built by Shah Jahan. During his reign, architecture reached its height and some of the principle works were: The finest example of architecture and mark of Love. They made use of red and grey sandstone latticed screens, painted ceilings and coloured tiles. Fluted domes covered with brass and copper guilds and arches were decorated. Babur undertook the construction of a mosque in Panipat and Rohilkhand in 1526 A.D. His reign was too small for any new style and design but he was fond of formal gardens. It consisted of Diwan-i-aam and Diwan-i-khas. In this period there was extensive use of red sandstone as building material. Forgusson has opined that the Mugha style of architecture was foreign in origin. The reign of Akbar (1556-1605) witnessed the development of the mughal architecture. Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. 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The Mughal architecture was an amalgamation of Persian, Turkic, Timurid Iranian, Central Asian, and Indian Hindu style of architecture. His tomb at Delhi represents an outstanding landmark in the development and refinement of the Mughal style. And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. He succeeded Babur but the reign was filled with constant struggle and war with Sher Shah Suri. Ans . He shifted his capital city from Agra to Delhi. The absence of pillars in the main hall and simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features. For the first time, red sandstone was used along with white (the white is used cleverly to emphasize, surround & underline doors and windows, strengthening the design). He occupied the throne of Delhi in 1556, the golden period of Mughal art and architecture. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. Your email address will not be published. Mughal architecture under him reached its zenith. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download contains detailed study notes for this topic. One of the important distinguishing features of the Mughal buildings is their ornamentation as compared with the simple buildings of the previous Muslim rulers of India. They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. Taj Mahal – It was built by Shah Jahan between 1632 and 1653, in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The Mughal paintings are developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India (16th to 19th century). The early Muslim invaders of India had come into the country to merely loot and plunder and did not concern themselves with architecture. The building material obtained from the destruction of other buildings was used for new improvised buildings such as Quwwat- … The collected and constant efforts of these artists gave birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings. Marvel at the grand design and layout. 5. The most important features of the Mughal monuments in India are the bulbous domes with constricted necks, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who displayed great passion for buildings with meticulous planning and constructing splendid edifices. Made of red stone on the bank of river Yamuna. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. Background- Muslim Rule in Subcontinent There were a number of different ruling dynasties who ruled over the subcontinent at successive intervals. The reign of Akbar is known for the initial works of Mughal School done by Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan. Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page. Architecture During Mughal Period. It was built by Shah Jahan, when he decided to move the capital from Agra to Delhi. Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. The new Indian Architecture of the Mughal period is called Mughal Architecture. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) recognized Taj Mahal as a World Heritage Site in 1983. On similar lines, square, red, sandstone; the double storeyed structure of the mausoleum rises over a high square terrace; raised over a series of cells; etc. His tomb was built at his birthplace Sasaram, Bihar, made up of red sandstone and situated inside a lake. 4. Thirteenth century had already introduced of the arcuate technique where spaces were covered with domes and entrances were made with the help of arches. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. Garden is divided into 4 parts by Charbagh (causeways), in the centre of which run shallow water-channels. 3 only. 0: if directly started body saying “Notable features of Mughal architecture are as following… …” 1: if only introduction written; 2: if both introduction and conclusion written; Body: 1 to 4 marks: Not more than 2 marks if you’ve not mentioned any specific “WHERE ARE HINDU ELEMENTS” Logical structure-1 to 0 INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE MIGHTY MUGHALS 2. • Significant use of Rectilinear Layouts are made within the walled enclosures. 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Cornices were built in the shape of an arch such that shadow took shape of a bow. What Great Buildings did the Mughals Create? Mughal emperors erected building of supreme beauty and grandeur. Two Frenchmen Bernier and Travenier an an Italian adventurer Manucci, the author of the Storio Dor Mogor, are specially noteworthy. Jaali work is lace-like and carvings on marble were finely done. This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. Key Features of Mughal Paintings: The Mughal pictures were small in size, and hence are known as ‘miniature paintings’. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. SALIENT FEATURES • Pools, • Fountains • Canals inside the gardens. Mughal architecture is a building style that developed in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th until the early 18th century, during the reign of the Mughal Empire. Use of red sandstone was principle feature and he introduced the use of. RELEVANCE – GS PRE & GS MAINS PAPER I – CULTURE SECTION Sikri town ( in Agra ) was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar. Red Fort – UNESCO designated it as the World Heritage Site in 2007. 1 and 3 only. Persian style was prominent during this period. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. were also introduced. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore). The Taj Mahal is a great example of Mughals’ architecture, which brought together all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals in a very pleasing manner. Under the patronage of Mughal emperors, the architecture of forts and tombs saw a striking resemblance to Islamic architecture. Mughal painting echoes an elite mixture of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. The architectural style is a remarkable mixture of Islamic, Indian, Turkish, and Persian styles. The Mughals built magnificent forts, palaces, gates, public buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well), etc. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam Buland Darwaza was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. These two artists were originally employed by Humayun. Building material: During the Mughal period, buildings were constructed mostly of red sandstone and white marble. Compare and contrast the architectural features of the Delhi Sultanate with that of Mughal architecture. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. Further facilitated by the inter-rivalry and lack of unity … Developed in Punjab and influenced by the Mughal architecture. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. Mughal architecture reached its peak during the rule of Shah Jahan. Consequently, they did not bring with them, architects or masons. Post – Mughal Style of Architecture AVADH (OUDH) STYLE. The two most celebrated works accompli… His period is the transition from Lodhi style to the Mughal style of architecture. Required fields are marked *, Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners, Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the. The architecture of the Akbar period is characterized by a strength made elegant and graceful by its rich decorative work, which reflects many traditional Hindu To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links: The Mughals constructed excellent Forts, Mosques, Mausoleums, Gardens and Cities. 2. introduction of the arch and dome in the region’s architecture 3. establishment of Timurid dynasty Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2015) 1 and 2 only. Use of multiple Chhatris on the top of the construction. Badshahi Mosque – At the time of completion in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. Each side pierced by arches and halls mounted by a large dome. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and use of pietre dura for decorative purposes. The art and architecture of the period after 1526 reveal a happy blending of Muslim and Hindu art traditions. Bara Imambara built by the Nawab of Oudh in 1784. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. Akbar period architecture, building style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605). Similar to literature and religion, the Mughal period was not an era of complete innovation and renaissance, but was an extension and culmination of processes that began in the last Ottoman-Afghan era. Large halls; Very large vaulted gateways; Delicate ornamentation; Bulbous domes; Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners The features include calligraphy, pietra dura works (beautiful inlay work with precious multicolour stones), Charbagh style gardens, use of water in premises for decoration and foresightening technique. The city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri, the “City of Victory”, after Akbar’s victorious Gujarat campaign in 1573. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2285 times. Its architects were R … Continue reading "Architecture at Fatehpur Sikri" The style of architecture used by both Jahangir and Shahjahan is known as Indo Persian. Reasons for Muslim conquests – the wealth of the nation & the spread of Islam. Development of architecture under different Mughal rulers: Mughal gardens. IAS Admit Card 2020 Out: Download UPSC CSE Mains Exam Admit Card, UPSC Study Material: Complete Notes for Prelims Exam in Hindi & English [Free], Monthly Current Affairs Test 2020: Attempt Quiz in Hindi & English, UPSC IAS Prelims Answer Key 2020: Download SET A, B, C & D Answer Key PDF. He made the best use of Hindu and Persian style of architecture.The salient features of Akbar’s buildings are the use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling. 1,2 and 3. Mughal dynasty was established after the battle of Panipat in 1526. What was the New Indian Architecture of the Mughal period called? Influenced by Mughals but unique in size and scope of construction. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. Humayun’s Tomb – It was built in 1570 in memory of Emperor Humayun, it was declared as the world heritage site in 1993. The Mughals were a Muslim Empire descended from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan. Here we are giving a gist of Mughal painting which is essential in UPSC IAS Examination. It can be translated as Door to Victory. These include buildings for domestic usage, temples, mosques, Khanqahs and dargahs, commemorative gateways, pavilions in the buildings and gardens, bazaars, etc. Sikandar Lodhi’s Tomb was the first garden-tomb built in India but it was the Humayun’s Tomb which gave new vision to art. Some of the prominent construction under his reign are: One of the first constructions during Akbar’s reign. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh. It was the residence of Mughal rulers. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. One of the finest creations of the Mughal, Jodha Bai’s Palace in Fatehpur Sikri was a gift to the Rajput wife of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. B He focused more on paintings and other art forms. The art and culture of India contain Paintings, music, architecture etc. This was the new capital city made by Akbar and was a new era of Indo-Islamic architecture. Though the Mughal art absorbed the Indian atmosphere, it neither represented the Indian emotions, nor the scenes from the daily life of the Indian. The new rulers effected an amalgam of the prevalent architectural forms and techniques with those brought from Central Asia and … Last Mughal to undertake architectural constructions. Red Fort is an irregular octagon with its walls, gates, and a few other structures constructed in red sandstone, and marble used for the palaces. Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the IAS Exam, in the linked article. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. He undertook the reconstruction and extension of an old Mauryan route and renamed it as Sadak-e-Azam which was later called as. Important Features of Mughal Architecture: Blend of Indian, Persian, and Turkish architectural style. Different types of buildings, such as majestic gates (entrances), … One of the architectural features of medieval India was also a coming together of styles, techniques, and decorations in public and private spaces for non-royal sections of the society. Fort Building. The material used by them to build early structures was derived from the destruction of temples in India. Humayun’s tomb built at Delhi (during Akbar’s reign), has a massive dome of marble; normally, it is considered as a precursor of the Taj Mahal. Architecture flourished during the reign of Humayun’s son Akbar. Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. He didn’t take any active interest in the pursuit of art and architecture. Described as ‘frozen moment in history’ as the buildings represented a unique combination of Hindu and Persian style. Apart from this celebrated duo, more than a hundred painters were employed, most of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir. Shalimar Gardens – It is a 40 acre garden built by Shah Jahan in 1642. It was designed in 1564, eight years after his death, as a mark of devotion by his widow, Haji Begum. Your email address will not be published. Indian architecture entered upon a new phase with the advent of the Mughals. Mughal Architecture. Dec 18, 2020 - Doc: Mughal Administration - The Mughal Empire, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. • This style was influenced by Persian Gardens and Timurid gardens. Mughal rulers were men of acute aesthetic awareness who revitalised Indo-Islamic architecture. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. The decline of Mughal architecture began during the rule of Aurangazeb and post his death. Constructed in the memory of his beloved wife Arzuman Bano Begum or Mumtaz Mahal. It is the largest palace in the abandoned yet magnificent city of Fatehpur Sikri. In fact, use of running water even in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. Humayun reestablished the Mughal empire in 1555. Mughal architecture […] It was built during the reign of Aurangazeb. They also laid out many formal gardens with running water. It was built in 1601 A.D and acts as entrance to the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri. A large trade developed between India and Western Asia and Europe, which greatly contributed to the travelers. The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. Mughal architecture started declining during his period. 3. INTRODUCTION • Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. 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