by Ute Daniel, Peter Gatrell, Oliver Janz, Heather Jones, Jennifer Keene, Alan Kramer, and Bill Nasson, issued by Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin 2018-02-06. Horses usually need to drink about 30 litres of water a day. A number of therapies were available at the hospitals far away from the battlefield. Lynn, John A. The war united Canadians at first. All combatants devised some means of doing this as efficiently as possible. ): The Military Papers of Lieutenant-General Frederick Stanley Maude, 1914-1917, Stroud 2012, pp. Cook, Sharp End 2007, pp. Once in, they were treated the same as the older men. 362-365 for some specifics of areas brutally hard-hit by the virus. While the MEF could take advantage of the river to move the majority of their freight until railway construction finally allowed the rails to begin moving more in mid-1917, the Ottomans had no alternatives except pushing their supplies over land. Capital ships deployed batteries of main guns ranging from 280 to 380 mm and the 330 guns that comprised the main batteries of the RN’s Grand Fleet dwarfed those available to the BEF. Overall, American forces, including many soldiers from New Jersey, made their most noteworthy contributions in the field at the Battle of Saint Mihiel, from September 12-16, 1918, and during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, from September 26 until the Armistice on November 11, 1918. (Nearly 80,000 were missing in action, most lost at sea.) By February 1917 he had reached a point where he could provide reasonable estimates to the War Office of the kind of daily needs his lines of communication had to meet. The Russians, Austro-Hungarians and Ottomans proved less successful not because they were incapable but because they simply began the war as less industrialized powers with correspondingly less well-developed infrastructure and a smaller base of expertise upon which to draw. Bloomington and Indianapolis 2008, pp. The wartime post was a remarkable operation, … Erickson, Ordered to Die 2001, p. 111; Syk, Maude 2012, p. 246. Overall, the Germans, French, British and eventually United States made the most effective use of transportation as all began the war as highly industrialized nation-states with dense transportation infrastructure and global trade routes. They made increasing use of the automobile as the war progressed but the true logistic implications of the automobile and airplane would not be illustrated until the next world war. This was no small feat and the success of the logisticians of all combatant nations ushered in an era of modern industrial, high-tempo, high-intensity mass warfare. Given the sheer size of the armies involved, simply keeping the soldiers on the front lines resupplied with rations on a daily basis proved a tremendous challenge to the quartermasters of all armies. He did not realize that while his situation was dicey, the Ottomans’ was dire. By the end of the conflict there were five million soldiers dotted around the world, with more than 2.3 million on the western front alone. In recognition of its role the South Eastern and Chatham’s Railway’s war memorial was placed at Dover, it and the station are listed Grade II. [26] This experience convinced the U.S. to standardize its trucks in the next world war. [14] Furthermore, when the temperature or combined effect of temperature and humidity reaches roughly thirty degrees Celsius, one must break up the working period with considerable periods of rest — say twenty minutes work and forty of rest per hour — which draws out the amount of time it takes to get things done. (ed. While Baghdad was a major population center, much of the war-fighting material needed had to come from as far away as Constantinople or Germany. When modern forces’ lines of communication are severed, crisis generally strikes quickly — the United Nations forces’ retreat from the Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War and the surrender of the remnants of German Sixth Army at Stalingrad in early 1943 are two excellent examples. For examples of both scurvy and dietary issues in Mesopotamia see Roy, Kaushik: From defeat to victory: logistics in the campaign in Mesopotamia, 1914-1918, in: Journal of First World War Studies 1/1 (2010), pp. Food is another necessity and providing some 4,000-5,000 calories per day was a difficult challenge, particularly in combat conditions. The destruction of Spee’s squadron on 8 December left the naval war between the British and Germans largely to the North Sea, the Mediterranean and, ultimately, to submarines, which proved far more dangerous than cruisers without overseas bases from which to replenish coal supply. Along with a fruit and vegetable shortage. This consisted of ships running 4,800 to just over 5,600 GRT. During wartime logistical practice at the operational (or theater) level of war is in many ways the most critical. [34] Ironically, one TEU is roughly the same size as one of the famous “forty and eight” boxcars that saw use on the French railways during the Great War. Soldiers with minor injuries were treated quickly and returned to the front line. 238-240. In the dockyards and at the great junctions, the A.S.C are loading and unloading; trains must hurry on their course, for, far away, transport motors are waiting to take up their burdens, and hurry them off to the fighting line. The barges were converted from a range of general use barges such as coal or cargo barges. 44-45. Indeed, the summer was so hot that it was often described as “leave season” since the idea of carrying out active, high-tempo operations was borderline madness. Although slow, the journey was smooth and this time allowed the wounded to rest and recuperate. Not all the men in the hospitals were battle casualties – sexually transmitted diseases took a toll of soldiers in France and a "Client for Rouen" was Army slang for a 'venereal' case. While the combatants in World War One each had a unique approach, all had some sort of civil-military organization devoted to determining how best to meet their political and grand strategic goals. Spee’s squadron arrived on the morning of 8 December, midway through the roughly forty-eight hours it normally took to reload the coal for Vice Admiral F.C.D. They were sturdy, hardy horses, able to travel long distances in hot weather with little water. Dover and Folkestone were two of the most important embarkation ports. Lambert, Nicholas A.: Planning Armageddon: British Economic Warfare and the First World War, Cambridge, MA 2012, pp. In contrast, the Ottomans did not have the relative luxury of a navigable river and they faced having to move all of their supply needs overland through a very harsh desert by rail, motorized transport or animal train. [2] While laughably small compared to the millions France and Germany mobilized in 1914, the BEF represented a very significant chunk of Britain’s small peacetime army. It was a special surgical hospital for orthopaedic cases. WW1 Allied Forces. They were then transferred to a hospital away from the front, where they would be looked after by nurses, most of whom were volunteers. Those with more serious but still treatable injuries were 'patched up' enough to be transported … The Mesopotamian front lacked any direct rail links to the Mediterranean and the nearest railhead to the Caucasus front was Ankara. Once in, they were treated the same as the older men. During World War One up to 12 million letters a week were delivered to soldiers, many on the front line. As such, a large supply of replacements had to be kept readily available and a significant infrastructure grew on the lines of communication for both the distribution and salvage of clothing. Yes they had a rotation of who would be at the front line. (Before this they may not have remained in one location long … The field manual uses US quarts and gallons. ): transferred to smaller steamers and shipped eighty miles to Chinde. : A mobile unit equipped with horse-drawn or motorized ambulances which evacuated soldiers from the Advanced Dressing Station rearward. Modern shipping is also far more automated. Fayle, C. Ernest: The War and the Shipping Industry. The BEF’s subsequent growth and the addition of more expeditionary forces in other places such as the Middle East and Mesopotamia were the result of additional decision-making in London. Horses purchased for the Army had to meet certain criteria. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme in 1916, 500 ‘Boy Soldiers’ were killed and 2,000 wounded. Even more than food, water is required to sustain human activity and its absence can prove disastrous far more rapidly than lack of food. It also led to transnational, global systems of captivity. They must also plan to build up the infrastructure in theater to a point where the materiel can be distributed to the troops with regularity. 49-50. Headquarters, Department of the Army, US Marine Corps, FM 90-3/FMFM 7-27, Desert Operations (Washington 1993), G-5. Many wounded were transported by water in hospital barges. Vehicles helped soldiers fight it out in the dangerous battle-field, tanks have never been used in warfare before World War 1 everyone was amazed at these new armored monsters (they were very scared as well!). The western front required massive logistic support because of the sheer manpower involved - millions of troops engaged in modern, high-intensity conflict. After twelve months the continuation of this state of affairs had forced the War Office to take note and institute changes which led to the construction of docks and proper storage depots, over time converting Basra into a fully functional base port from which supplies could be forwarded via river, rail or road. 184-185. The early months of the war at sea provide excellent examples of the difficulties faced by the IGN in supplying their fleet units overseas. When Black people from Sydney, Nova Scotia volunteered their services, they were told, "This is not for you fellows, this is a white man's war." A. P. Moller-Maersk A/S Group Annual Report, 2012, p. 39. It is useful to consider just how much things have changed during the past century. The barges were converted from a range of general use barges such as coal or cargo barges. This resource reveals the wartime stories of three buildings that temporarily became hospitals. © Historic England Archive. Many died, as a result. In all theaters an enormous effort went into building, maintaining and expanding the infrastructure that supported this level of war. Units of the Imperial German Navy (IGN) that left or found themselves outside the confines of the North Sea had a range that was limited to the coal in their bunkers plus what they might be allowed by neutral countries or what they could commandeer. Nonetheless, some segregated units were formed. As Frederick Maude (1864-1917), commander of the Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force (MEF) in 1916-17, wrote, “if you feed them well they feel well, and consequently they fight well, and it is money well invested.”[12] The difficulty in providing rations was exacerbated by the fact that the calories supplied needed to comprise a reasonably balanced diet that will not trigger health issues due to a lack of key nutrients. In Britain, the wounded were cared for in a range of buildings around the country, from schools to stately homes. By the armistice the British employed over 81,000 vehicles in eight overseas theaters (France, Italy, Salonica, northern Russia, Malta, Egypt, East Africa and Mesopotamia) with nearly 14,000 more in service in Britain and some 24,000 in depots ready to ship overseas. This allowed them to maintain in 1917 and 1918 a level of ammunition expenditure commensurate with modern, high intensity conflict. The second and more deadly wave swept Western Europe in September and killed nearly as many Americans as died in battle (43,000 influenza fatalities). Nonetheless, huge quantities of railway construction occurred in the east, particularly after the Central Powers pushed the Russians back nearly 450 kilometers following the confrontation at Gorlice-Tarnow in May 1915. Explore the many ways you can help to support the incredibly rich and varied heritage. [19] While soldiers did not require the daily intervention of medics unless they had actually fallen ill, ready access to medical care was crucial. In 1914, truly long distance or inter-continental travel happened by sea and, outside of those immigrating to new countries, was largely the purview of the wealthy. 8-9. 139-154, passim. The BEF, for example, in spite of beginning the war with a tiny force in France and then dealing with a major shell crisis during 1915, managed to expend 3.4 million metric tons of artillery ammunition over the course of the war (see Figure 1). Basra to Baghdad is roughly 450 kilometers, direct. Testing vertical aerial photography methods at British Camp on the Malvern Hills. overland by wagon, truck or porter to Lake Nyasa. Ironically, once these issues had been ironed out, the MEF occupied Kut on 25 February 1917, having begun their push late the prior year on 13 December. All armies invested enormously in infrastructure development, but French, British and American building included significant port expansion to handle more ships simultaneously. The armies of 1914-1918 faced the challenge of supplying millions of men in theaters scattered around Eurasia and Africa with, essentially, 19th century technology. The cartridge for the British Army’s Lee Enfield rifle (.303 inches, or slightly less than 7.7 mm) could not be used if captured by a German soldier armed with a 7.92 mm Mauser (roughly .312 inches). If you're wondering how many soldiers were mobilised, there were 65 million. Limitations of scale and efficiency in 1914 meant that logisticians of the day had to work extremely hard to build infrastructure and support the troops. Sturdee’s (1859-1925) battle cruisers Inflexible and Invincible which had arrived the day before and which significantly outclassed the German warships in terms of speed, armor and fire-power. [18] Indeed, the global death toll of the pandemic, at least 50 and possibly over 100 million, killed far more than died in battle during the entire war. In November 1915 they pushed from Kut to Ctesiphon, just short of Bagdhad but the Ottomans forced them to fall back to Kut and besieged British forces there from late November 1915 until their ultimate capitulation on 29 April 1916. ): The Merchant Marine in International Affairs 1850-1950. On the Western […] [10] The truly staggering thing to note about Figure 1 is how Britain’s expenditure accelerated so dramatically from the second quarter of 1917. For examples from Basra’s expansion see Roy, From defeat to victory 2010, p. 46. Chickering, Roger / Förster, Stig (eds. In the Great War, this remained the case, particularly in theaters where maladies such as malaria were prevalent. [36] Finally, once it leaves port, a warship is effectively a self-contained ecosystem carrying with it all it requires until it again reaches port—fuel, ammunition, water, food and shelter for its crew. Please click on the gallery images to enlarge. It was later moved to Harwich, Listed Grade II. 5. Though, as late as mid-August, German railway construction was still 125 kilometers short of the new front lines.[20]. For a good description of the term “sharp end” see the introduction to Cook, Tim: At the Sharp End: Canadians Fighting the Great War 1914-1916, Toronto 2007, pp. The horses were called Walers because, although they came from all parts of Australia, they were originally sold through New South Wales. Ships of the day used a combination of cranes, booms and manual labor with everything being loaded through large cargo hatches on the ship’s main deck. Five million Britons are under arms, and our Allies must also be supplied with food, munitions and clothing. Troop trains were a major means of transporting troops to near to the front. Forgotten Fronts: Italy 1918. Even so, some variation occurred, as with the Ross rifle which the Canadian government chose to issue their soldiers as their primary infantry rifle. For the total death estimate see Barry, John M.: The Great Influenze: The Epic Story of the Deadliest Plague in History, London 2005, p. 397 and 452 and pp. Paice, Edward: World War I, The African Front, New York 2010, pp. See Brown, British Logistics 1998, pp. Historic England holds an extensive range of publications and historic collections in its public archive covering the historic environment. In fact a brothel had been established in Rouen and was visited by 171,000 men in its first year, with just 243 infection cases, but public opinion in the UK forced its closure However, the service of animals during times of military conflict often goes unmentioned. While Maude succumbed to dysentery on 18 November 1917, his focus, indeed near-obsession, on the lines of communication is evidenced by steady growth in 1917 and then the relative explosion in total tonnage moved in the last half of that year. Logistics at its core is the art and science of moving things from where they are produced to where they are consumed in a timely and cost-effective manner. I knew Edmonton Military Hospital as it was close to where I lived. How were Australian soldiers transported back to Australia after WW1? At the same time, the density of infrastructure in France and Germany contributed directly to the intensity and mass of combat on the western front. [17] The injurious possibilities of disease were also evident in 1918 when the great influenza pandemic swept the globe. With World War I raging in Europe, African soldiers were forced to fight for their colonial masters between 1914 and 1918. Many wounded were transported … Field artillery was designed for mobile warfare. ): Feeding Mars, Logistics in Western Warfare from the Middle Ages to the Present, Boulder 1993, pp. Officers and doctors thought the soldiers were weak. We are used to thinking of the battle of the Somme as a vast artillery struggle. Some men formed close relationships with the horses, but they could do little to prevent the appallingly high death rate due to exhaustion, shelling and front-line charges. By and large, standardization helped in this regard, since most armies adopted a single primary rifle for the majority of their infantrymen. Henniker, A.M.: Transportation on the Western Front, 1914-1918. 264-265. A soldier also requires shelter — clothing and relief from the weather, even if that relief is little more than a small dugout carved into a trench wall. But although the casualty figures were horrific, the vast majority of British soldiers did survive the First World War. London and Portland 2000, p. 31. In late 1916 Maude continued to emphasize the issues of supplies and transportation; following the advance to the Haj, he immediately began pushing the rail line forward and supplemented it with “streams of Ford motor vans perpetually on the move and long lines of camels and mule carts...”[47] All of this was aimed at accumulating supplies, ammunition and stores as far in advance as possible. Throughout the war the railways were the quickest way of moving people and goods around the country and most places had ready access to a railway station. At that time, when counting only ocean-going ships greater than 1,600 gross registered tons (GRT), the British merchant fleet averaged just over 4,300 GRT per ship; by April 1918 the average had increased to just over 4,600 GRT. Colonial powers had to consider globe-spanning empires. Her ports are busy, day and night the work never ceases, for shipload after shipload of men, munitions, and supplies must be sent to her far-flung armies. A total of 3,240,948 tons of food was sent from Britain to the soldiers fighting in France and Belgium during the First World War.The British Army employed 300,000 field workers to cook and supply the food. Brave story of the youngest soldier of WW1 - killed at Ypres aged just 14 ... “My dad is in the Army and my grandad was too but I never realised how young the soldiers were in the First World War. Essentially, to supply troops in East Africa, the British used every means of transportation except aircraft. They also planned to convert an existing 2’6” line to meter gauge in order to reuse the smaller gauge forward from Shahraban. Conserving the Fog Battery Station on Lundy Island. This requires a variety of means of transportation: light railways for artillery ammunition, horse and wagon, sometimes motorized transport and often the backs of fellow soldiers to reach the trenches. In: Parameters (1989), p. 34. Finally, even though the rivers were at their summer lows, few ships were grounding because a great deal of work had gone into buoying the channels adequately. [50] By the end of the war, Maude’s successor, Lieutenant-General Sir William Marshall (1865-1939), commanded one of the largest riverine fleets in the world – “419 river steamers, 27 hospital steamers, 774 barges and 414 motor boats” operating from what had become a very large base port. Brown, Ian M.: British Logistics on the Western Front, 1914-1919, Westport and London 1998, p. 42. There were several hospitals in England given over to the care of wounded soldiers during the First World War. A crash between a loaded troop train and 3 other trains near Gretna Green remains the U.K. rail accident with the largest loss of life. No one in a decision making position foresaw the rate at which munitions would be used and all the major powers involved suffered supply crises such as shell shortages in 1915.[3]. During the First World War, this had to be done daily, whatever the conditions, because the soldiers on the front lines could not simply go to the rear to pick supplies up at their leisure. Figure 1: BEF, Cumulative Shell Tonnage Expended, 1914-1918 (millions of metric tons)[8], Figure 2: BEF, Artillery Expediture by Type, 1914-1918[9]. Error creating thumbnail: Unable to save thumbnail to destination, Logistics; supplies; rations; infrastructure, Poster of the 42 cm German artillery shell "Big Bertha", Turkish prisoners constructing a railway, 1917, French truck carrying a tank, France, 1921, British Expeditionary Force, cumulative shell tonnage expended, 1914-1918, British Expeditionary Force, artillery expenditure by type, 1914-1918, Weekly average freight tons on MEF railways and waterways, Canadian forestry troops at work in France, Political, Theater and Tactical Logistics. While land combat gets much of the attention of authors, naval logistics and, for the first time, aerial logistics played roles in the Great War. Horses and WW1. The reverse reads: ‘Never ending are the tasks of Britain’s transport. By the armistice, the MEF had pushed as far as Mosul and the logistic focus of 1916 and 1917 left the Ottomans unable to push back the MEF. The Military Hospital was a great centre of interest to local people with its two large red crosses on the front gates. [23] Nonetheless, armies did seize on the automobile and motorized transport to as great an extent as possible. 4 of 4. Mechanised road transport was in its infancy, although steam wagons, and petrol and diesel lorries were increasingly used for shorter journeys. Newell, Clayton R.: Logistic Art. Indeed, the vaunted German blitzkrieg of the next world war was primarily supported by horse-drawn transport. [16] Pipelines were used in some areas but they were very vulnerable to shell fire. 7. For starters, capital ships carried far larger and more powerful artillery than armies used; certainly they were heavier than those deployed by brigades or divisions. 103-104. Early on, the Ottomans faced a 360 mile gap between Samara, north of Baghdad, and the rail head at Ras-El-Ain and had only just finished closing the gap in October 1918 allowing rail traffic from Constantinople. US Department of the Army, Historical Division: United States Army in the World War, 1917-1919, Volume 14, Washington, DC 1948, CD-ROM reprint, Center for Military History, 2001, pp. The soldiers were having to spend Christmas Eve night on the battlefields of France during World War I, the Great War, as it was called. The youngest soldier to die in WWI was 15. While the tonnage of those supplies increased steadily as fighter and bomber performance and capability grew, they never approached the level that would be seen later in the 20th century. While it did represent an order of magnitude increase over earlier battles, the engagements in 1917 and 1918 saw that kind of order of magnitude increase again. Main Dressing Station: A stationary medical facility at which battlefield casualties received fresh wound dressings, and at which time they were formally recorded as having entered the medical system. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. There were 4 ambulance trains in 1914 and 28 by July 1916). They were similar in how they were run except that each had its own specialisation. ): Maude, Stanley, Syk, Andrew / Army Records Society (Great Britain) (eds. Fort Leavenworth 1931-32, p. 17. [11] For the continental powers growth in ammunition expenditure might not have been as dramatic since they started with a much larger military base. In spite of such limitations, the continental powers all fielded and supported millions of men. Whether providing comfort, inspiration, or indispensable service, animals have played a crucial role in militaries and armed conflicts for centuries. See our extensive range of expert advice to help you care for and protect historic places. In Europe, Germany’s political-military decision makers had to prepare for the possibility of a two-front war in both the east and west. These requirements would have run up to two liters per hour per man for hard labor during the heat of the day and one liter per hour in cooler conditions or at night. In 1914, almost all global trade moved by sea, generally in coal-fired shipping; today, almost all global trade still moves by sea but the ships are oil-fired, much faster and far larger than their predecessors. Logistics is a critical part of both modern life and of modern military endeavor. This encompasses everything from base ports or major home nation depots, rail lines and regulating stations to the railheads where supplies were delivered to armies, corps and divisions. 2-3. In some cases, secretive rendezvous were set up between German high seas raiders such as the SMS Emden and supply ships that had run the gauntlet of the RN’s blockade but this was always a calculated gamble. Marshall was able to make full use of a line of communication that, at its peak in the late spring of 1918, was moving nearly 13,500 tons of supplies per day by rail and river. Both Germany ’ s role as the older men photography methods at British Camp the! The browsers below, unfortunately your browser is not supported expected to fight their! Significant task % of there time in the Great war made extensive use of ship rail... Two of the battle of the difficulties faced by the virus front line millions... 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