Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Muhammad Hussain, Arab Naz, Waseem Khan, Umar Daraz, and Qaisar Khan, This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License (. Gender relates to a set of cultural expectations according to which men and women behave .Each culture assigns certain roles and standardized patterns of behavior to its members that allow them to organize their lives in a consistent and predictable way. It has been observed that men and women perform different jobs; men work outside the home, whereas women work inside the home as unpaid housewives, where such dichotomy is internalized by children from very early age, and they remain attached with such stereotypic gender roles in their future (Gleitman et al., 2000). Qaisar Khan is assistant professor, Department of English, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower, KP, Pakistan. Bring forward and share successful experiences and good practices to combat gender stereotyping and the resulting discrimination and build on positive outcomes. In regard of father and mother role in gender socialization and stereotyping, Leaper (2000) identified that mothers as compared with fathers used to encourage collaborative play with sons and daughters, but similarly, they favor affiliative play with daughters; they are encouraged for supportive and responsive interaction with others, whereas the reaction of fathers was negative especially with their sons for cross-gender behavior. 1.Pakhtun is an ethnic group mostly living in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa having distinct lifestyle under the umbrella of Pakhtunwali. Keeping such notions in view, boys being strong and brave are socialized to be competitive and success-oriented (Booysen & De Witt, 1995). The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. In fact, across the whole study it was found that children whose friendship group emphasises traditional gender roles and stereotypes have lower well-being than others. . . The study mainly focuses on the role of family in preserving, reinforcing, and thus perpetuating gender differentiation, gender socialization, gendered division of labor, and parents’ differential treatment that inculcate gender stereotypes and resultantly affect gender role development. Furthermore, in most of the research studies, it has also been observed that parents’ differential behavior with boys and girls in a single familial environment sharpen the prevalence of gender differences in daily life. The field information shows that gender differences are not natural but rather the production of sociocultural packages where such packages are practiced in different institutions especially in family. An expression of bravery and strength is given by resembling them to tigers where it is assumed that tigers do not cry, whereas this is not the case with girls, because they are considered weak. In addition, females mostly urge on this outlook including their physique in terms of delicacy while keeping the traditional norms. Parents teach stereotypes through different ways and behaviors in daily life, for example, the way they use to dress their children and decorate their children’s rooms, the toys they give their children to play with, and their own attitudes and behavior toward them that increase the inculcation of gender stereotyping (Hetherington & Parke, 1999). On the contrary, females are taught with emotionality and delicacy through examples from the past. From the perspective of gender stereotyping of female expatriates in the current literature, we have singled out the primary organisational drivers of stereotyping. In 1985, for my degree course I did a Psychology dissertation called “Gender Role Stereotyping in Children’s Comics” whereby I reviewed all the latest research and scoured comics for gender differences. stereotypes in a family context, and demonstrated that pa- rental gender stereotypes and the presence of siblings play an important role in the development of explicit gender For example, before the age of 3 years, there are fascinating differences between boys and girls that further create differences in their interaction. To them, gender role identification is carried out through clear and strict division of labor where parents prescribe certain activities specific for boys and girls. In addition, it has been cleared from the findings of research studies conducted so far along with current study that there are differences between males and females, where such differences are strengthened and internalized by both genders through the process of gender socialization. Television and movies on-screen are forms of entertainment that influence gender stereotypes. For instance, the birth of male child is symbolic of increased family power and is thus celebrated, whereas female birth does not bring such celebrations (Naz & Rehman, 2012). Several studies point to stereotyping on the basis of their sex-related characteristics (Sanders & Peterson, 1999). In contrast, children who chose the relatively gender-neutral trait, ‘working hard at school’, as the most important quality scored highest for well-being. He received his PhD in anthropology with specialization in women and gender studies. In our traditional family system, males and females are treated differently. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. But keep in mind that books contribute to how children understand what is expected of women and men, and shape the way they think about their … Similarly, however, field information reflects that a Pakhtun female should be of contrary nature where she has to be passive, low tuned (while talking), caretaker of others, cooperative, shy, and so on (views of respondents in majority) In addition, similar views have been documented from the extracts (of interview) of Respondent 21 (female interviewee) as, . Based on the argument, this study then attempts to investigate the role of family institution in nurturing gender stereotypes among Pakhtuns. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation. This site is using cookies under cookie policy. More specifically, gender stereotypes are deep-rooted perceptions of the characteristics of male and female, which support the continuity of specific gender roles (Suter, 2006). Some cultures even include a third gender category because not everyone fits within Waseem Khan is lecturer and PhD scholar, Department of Sociology, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Dir Lower, KP, Pakistan. I was amazed that even my mother scolded me and taunted that these are womanly jobs and men should not be involved. In family, parents start teaching children’s roles shortly after birth, for example, boys are cuddled, kissed, and stroked less than girls, whereas girls are less often tossed and handled roughly. Under this mechanism, most of the decisions such as marriage, business, economic, and so on, are carried out by the dominant male segment in the family. The di… of all the other obligations that a Pakhtun female has to obey and follow, I was less likely taught about the gender differences. Gender:Gender refers to the roles and responsibilities of men and women that are created in our families, our societies and our cultures. Through this way, they take the bridle of leadership and thus form a patriarchic structure. Similarly, an example can be extracted from the work of Basow (1992), where she argued that it is evident that parents’ differential treatment and reaction affect children’s behavior in the future endeavors of life; for example, parents have been observed reacting negatively to their children, especially girls, whenever the girls are observed in masculine character and boys in feminine character. These activities are considered gender appropriate in our culture. To authenticate the statement, interview (with Respondent 7, female teacher) has interesting information regarding gender differences. It is clear from the aforementioned discussion that parents play a key role in the development of gender and gender role in early years of life. Although I have not been deprived of the rights that are deemed necessary in my survival, growth and well-being yet if I analyze my life critically there seems some kind of discriminative treatment with us. In this way, boys mostly attempt to dominate, control, and try to find out the answer of the question “Am I better than you?” and they try to present themselves as being strong and independent. This assumption also adds knowledge to the Social Learning Theory which focuses upon gender socialization, imitation, as well as reward and punishment that find children while living in family. In this connection, the communal perception is highly taken into consideration. In this regard, Fiese and Skillman (2000) have highlighted many patterns of storytelling for the development of gender-typed characteristics, values, and related traits among children. In this regard, the sample of 8 respondents has been taken with the ratio of 2 male students, 2 male teachers, 2 female students, and 2 female teachers, which further gives the justification of gender equality and research objectivity. For example, if a girl is expected to become a housewife and care for her family, then society might lose a natural talent for physics. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Older girls had Jackie, My Guy and Blue Jeans – the boys seem to move on to … This study then is an attempt to investigate familial factors that contribute to stereotyping and highlights institutional mechanism for reinforcing and preserving gender stereotypes among Pakhtuns. The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender roles Difficulties in differentiating gender roles in the modern societies can be a perfect example of the negative social effects of using stereotypes. I am a traditional and pure Pakhtun and love to follow Pakhtunwali as my code for which I feel honored. It was added by the respondents that the gender segregation occurs at the time when two opposite sexes, that is, boys and girls, come in contact or gather with one another, which is mostly forbidden by the family and community. In the light of findings and results extracted from current research study, few recommendations are put forwarded to sort out gender stereotyping embedded in the sociocultural fabric of Pakhtun society especially in the sphere of family. It also attempts to explore the impact of stereotyping on gender role development. The factors and agents also include family as a basic and primary source of gender socialization (J. E. Jacobs, 1991) where social roles are assigned based on gender (Eccles, 1983; J. Jacobs, 2000). A stereotype is any notion that is widely selected about certain types of people or specific ways of behavior that is intended to be representing the entire group of those people or behaviors as a whole. This is a sudden change of concepts of a male dominated society. It is concluded from the discussion that family is the place where individuals come in contact with family members and find them a source for their upbringing and socialization. Children learn the traditional gender roles where such roles help to sustain gender stereotypes, for example, males are believed to be aggressive, independent, and task-oriented, whereas females are assumed as more sensitive, emotional, people-oriented, and dependent. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. Gender relates to a set of cultural expectations according to which men and women behave (Kruger, 1997). Join now. To address gender concerns holistically, it is essential to mainstream gender in all institutions of society especially in family. . . The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits … Gender is composed of three parts: biology, gender roles, and sexuality. Despite the many roles men and women play in today’s world, some people still judge others based on how they think males and females ‘should’ act. Mostly, the parents follow the traditional, already defined, and socially constructed notions, that is, stereotypes while socializing children, where these stereotypes represent the collective knowledge, customs and traditions, and convictions and conventions of the society concerned (Macrae, Stangor, & Hewstone, 1996). From then onward, in peers’ company, in schools, and even in workplace, the idea that males are superior is reinforced. . …, ेरा हर एक से अब वफ़ा करता हैछुप छुप के बेवफाई वाले दिन चले गएआंखो में आंखे डाल कर अब दगा करता है​, free point ❣️❣️ good morning .if you take more points then thanks my 10 question . This research study is qualitative in nature based on both secondary and primary information. . We … Contrary to boys, girls try to establish and sustain their relationships where they often ask the question, “Do you like me?” because boys and girls want to adopt and do different things; they start to avoid each other at the age of 3 or 4 years. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. In this regard, most of the traditional societies have made strong distinctions between the traits and attributes associated to gender, whereas this is not the case with few developed societies (Davidson & Gordon, 1979). Such stereotypic behavior is learned, transmitted, and changed in the course of socialization. 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